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Субглобальные оценки и рабочая группа

Все больше становится ясно, что глобальные изменения окружающей среды имеют причины и последствия, проявляющиеся на разных масштабах, от локального до глобального. Таким образом, для принимающих решения лиц важно иметь точные и информативные оценки происходящих изменений, а также реалистичный прогноз на будущее. И все же до недавнего времени международные научные оценки обычно заостряли внимание на глобальных явлениях, чем на процессах, протекающих на региональном уровне, и на взаимодействии процессов разных масштабов. Программа ОЭ провела многомасштабную оценку, состоявшую из взаимосвязанных оценок для разных масштабов: локального, уровня водосбора, национального, регионального и глобального.

Sub-Global Assessments

The MA sub-global assessments were designed to meet needs of decision-makers at the scale at which they are undertaken, strengthen the global findings with on-the-ground reality, and strengthen the local findings with global perspectives, data, and models. There are 18 MA-approved sub-global assessments, and an additional fifteen with an associated status. Assessments at sub-global scales are needed because ecosystems are highly differentiated in space and time, and because sound management requires careful local planning and action. Local assessments alone are insufficient, however, because some processes are global, and because local goods, services, matter, and energy are often transferred across regions. The sub-global assessments will directly meet the needs of decision-makers at the scale at which they are undertaken, strengthen the global findings with on-the-ground reality, and strengthen the local findings with global perspectives, data, and models.

 Approved Assessments

  • British Columbia, Canada
  • Integrated Assessment of the Salar de Atacama, Chile
  • Ecosystem Management and Social-Ecological Resilience in Kristianstads Vattenrike and River Helgeå catchment
  • Stockholm Urban Assessment
  • Coastal, Small Island and Coral Reef Ecosystems in Papua New Guinea
  • India Local Ecosystem Assessments: Karnataka and Maharashtra of Western Ghats
  • Ecosystems and People: the Philippines MA
  • Aleternatives to Slash-and-Burn (ASB) Crosscutting Sub-Global Assessment
  • Norwegian Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Pilot Study
  • Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of Western China
  • Southern African Sub Global Assessment (SAfMA)
  • Downstream Mekong River Wetlands Ecosystem Assessment, Vietnam
  • Portugal Millennium Assessment
  • Assessment of the Northern Range of Trinidad, Trinidad & Tobago
  • Assessment of the Caribbean Sea (CARSEA)
  • Altai-Sayan Ecoregion
  • Vilcanota Sub-Region, Peru
  • Local Ecosystem Assessment of the Higher and Middle Chirripo River Sub-Basin. Cabecar Indigenous Territory of Chirripo, Costa Rica

 Associated Assessments

  • Arab Region Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Supporting Decision Making for the Sustainable Use of Ecosystems
  • Biodiversity, Local Knowledge, and Poverty Alleviation: Sinai Sub Global Assessment
  • Arafura and Timor Seas Sub Global Assessment
  • Indonesia Sub-Global Assessment
  • São Paulo City Green Belt Biosphere Reserve Assessment
  • Ecological Function Assessment of Biodiversity in the Colombian Andean Coffee-Growing Region
  • Assessment of the Central Asian Mountain Ecosystems
  • The Great Asian Mountains Assessment (GAMA)
  • The Upstream Region MA of the Great Rivers, Northwest Yunnan, China
  • Fiji Sub-Global Assessment
  • Environmental Service Assessment in Hindu-Kush Himalayas Region – Trade-offs and Incentives
  • Indian Urban Assessment with focus on Western Ghats

Assessment report outline

Contents, Foreword, Preface [pdf, 1212 KB]

01. MA Conceptual Framework [pdf, 431 KB]

02. Overview [pdf, 196 KB]

03. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being [pdf, 258 KB]

04. Multi-Scale Approach [pdf, 728 KB]

05. Multiple Knowledge Systems [pdf, 437 KB]

06. Assessment Process [pdf, 261 KB]

07. Drivers of Ecosystem Change [pdf, 1327 KB]

08. Condition and Trends [pdf, 1181 KB]

09. Responses [pdf, 472 KB]

10. Scenarios [pdf, 2310 KB]

11. Community Assessments [pdf, 451 KB]

12. Reflections and Lessons Learned [pdf, 158 KB]

Appendices [pdf, 7571 KB]

Sub-Global Working Group

The MA Sub-Global Working Group, comprised of all the MA sub-global assessments, produced a sub-global assessment. This report is both a synthesis of the findings of the various sub-global assessments and a resource on the lessons learned through the process on multiscale assessment methodologies, cross-scale interactions, and the incorporation of traditional and local knowledge into a scientific assessment process.


  • Cristian Samper
  • Doris Capistrano

Technical Support

  • Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne
    WorldFish Center
    Penang, Malaysia
  • Marcus Lee
    WorldFish Center
    Penang, Malaysia
© 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment